Stainless Steel Surface Finish

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  • 2B Surface Finish Stainless Steel
    2B Surface Finish Stainless Steel
    2B surface finished description

    Cold rolled, heat treated, pickled, skin passed.
    The material is cold rolled, softened and descaled as in the case of the 2D finish and then receives a final light pass on polished rolls called a ‘skin pass’ or ‘pinch pass’.  The material remains grey in appearance but the effect of this final pass on polished rolls is to produce a smoother, brighter surface than the 2D finish.  This is the general purpose, cold rolled finish and it is suitable for a wide range of applications where stainless steel is specified.  It is also suitable for a wide range of subsequent polishing processes such as satin finishing. Typical uses for a standard 2B finish include non-decorative or functional sheet metal products, industrial refrigeration equipment, chemical plant and plumbing fixtures.

    Surface Finished Introduction

    Surface finish is an important element in any specification of stainless steel regardless of the intended use.  For those applications where appearance is important, finish is a design element and must be specified.  In nondecorative applications the surface finish may have implications for friction, wear, maintenance or corrosion resistance and must, therefore, also be carefully chosen and clearly specified.
    The choice of finish should never be left to the supplier, or the specification loosely worded, such as “Type 304 with a 180 grit finish”.  The finish should be properly identified by a standard industry designation or by a trade name, e.g. OPTISHEEN®.

    Finishes and Design

    There are a wide range of decorative finishes available; therefore, it is important to pay close attention to the selection of the most appropriate finish for the application required.  For highly visible applications the appearance of stainless steel is a critical design element and a misunderstanding of the wrong finish can alter the desired effect.  In commercial and hygienic applications, such as restaurants and hospitals, properly finished stainless steel is easier to keep clean.  In consumer products, such as catering equipment, the lustre from a well polished sheet of stainless steel has strong sales appeal.
    In addition to the visual appearance of polished stainless steel there are a number of functional considerations.  In sanitary applications correctly polished stainless steel not only looks good but it helps to reduce the risk of bacteria being retained by the material.
    In aggressive environments, such as in the nuclear or offshore industries, a correctly polished stainless steel surface has a better resistance to corrosion than a surface that is roughly or badly polished.  A smooth surface is less susceptible to an accumulation of deposits and stainless, which often become focal points for localised corrosion.  All stainless steel finishes perform better when cleaned and maintained and details of correct cleaning procedures may be found in our publication, “The Cleaning and Maintenance of Stainless Steel”.
  • Mirror Finish Stainless Steel
    Mirror Finish Stainless Steel
    Mirror surface finished description

    Mirror Finish – Non-Directional with a very high degree of image clarity.
    A very reflective finish achieved by pre-grinding and then finally bright buffing as for the No. 7 finish.  Pre-grinding enables removal of surface defects and is essential on coarse mill finishes such as No. 2D or No. 1.  The process is also necessary if the No. 7 bright polished finish is not of sufficient reflectivity but, as it is far more expensive than the No. 7, it is only used when absolutely necessary.
    It is used for decorative surfaces and food conveyors where a particularly smooth finish is required.

    Surface Finishes introduction
    Surface finish is an important specification for stainless steel products and is critical in applications where appearance is also important. Certain surface finishes also make stainless steel easier to clean, which is obviously important for sanitary applications. A smooth surface as obtained by polishing also provides better corrosion resistance. On the other hand, rough finishes are often required for lubrication applications, as well as to facilitate further manufacturing steps.

    Surface finishes are the result of processes used in fabricating the various forms or are the result of further processing. There are a variety of methods used for finishing. A dull finish is produced by hot rolling, annealing, and descaling. A bright finish is obtained by first hot rolling and then cold rolling on polished rolls. A highly reflective finish is produced by cold rolling in combination with annealing in a controlled atmosphere furnace, by grinding with abrasives, or by buffing a finely ground surface. A mirror finish is produced by polishing with progressively finer abrasives, followed by extensive buffing. For grinding or polishing, grinding wheels or abrasive belts are normally used. Buffing uses cloth wheels in combination with cutting compounds containing very fine abrasive particles in bar or stick forms. Other finishing methods include tumbling, which forces movement of a tumbling material against surfaces of parts, dry etching (sandblasting), wet etching using acid solutions, and surface dulling. The latter uses sandblasting, wire brushing, or pickling techniques.
  • Stainless Steel Finishes
    Stainless Steel Finishes
    NO.1 surface finished description
    Plate is hot rolled, annealed, pickled and passivated. This results in a dull, slightly rough surface; quite suitable for industrial applications which generally involve the range of plate thicknesses. Grinding marks may be visible in isolated areas.
    Some of the thinner thicknesses within the plate range are Cold Rolled; but Sheet, Coil and Strip gauges are produced by Cold Rolling, ie rolled without and heating of the material. Cold Rolling hardens the material, and the thinner sizes may have to be subjected to an intermediate anneal and pickle, or bright annealed, during the reduction of thickness to final gauge.
    The starting material for Cold Rolling always has a No. 1 finish. Cold Rolled material is supplied with the following standard mill finishes.

    The introduction of stainless steel surface finished

    The surface of Stainless Steel is actually and extremely thin but stable and passive Chromium rich oxide film, on which Stainless Steel relies for its excellent corrosion resistance. The surface finish on Stainless Steel should therefore be developed and maintained to ensure this vital property, and also for the secondary reason of the pleasing aesthetic appearance of Stainless Steel.

    Rolled finishes are created when a stainless steel coil is passed through a set of rolls. The finish on the rolls is transferred to the surface of the coil. They are directional and, if panels are not installed in the same rolling direction, a checkerboard appearance can result.
    To prevent this problem, the rolling direction should be marked on the back of the panel. Dirt and debris accumulation is greater when directional finishes are installed with a horizontal grain orientation.

    Stainless steel also can be colored by electrochemical coloring, sputtering, plating, and resin-based paints.
    The scratch resistance, appearance, and color stability of these processes varies considerably and should be taken into consideration during selection. Although some of these processes improve corrosion resistance, this should not be considered a substitute for selecting an appropriate grade of stainless steel for the environment.
  • BA Finish Stainless Steel
    BA Finish Stainless Steel
    BA surface finished description

    Bright Annealed. A cold-rolled reflective finish retained through annealing.
    This is more commonly referred to as a BRIGHT ANNEALED (BA) FINISH. Material with a No. 1 finish is Cold Rolled using highly polished rolls in contact with the steel surface. This smooths and brightens the surface.
    The smoothness and reflectiveness of the surface improves as the material is rolled to thinner and thinner sizes. Any annealing which needs to be done in order to effect the required reduction in gauge, and the final anneal, is effected in a very closely controlled inert atmosphere. No oxidation or scaling of the surface therefore occurs and there is no need for additional pickling and passivating.
    The final surface developed can have "MIRROR" type finish similar in appearance to the highly polished No. 7 and No. 8 Finishes.

    Note
    Much of the 2B Finish sheet imported is not a true 2B Finish. Mills which operate bright annealing facilities will often carry out all the annealing operations of Cold Rolled material in such facilities. This leads to a superior "2B" finish as no oxidation or scaling takes place during the annealing operation, even though the actual rolling may be effected on polished rolls as for normal 2B Finish, but not highly polished as would be needed to produce a BA finish.
    The following finishes are all mechanically produced polished finishes. As well as being standard mill finishes, they are also applied to stainless steel articles and components to meet the required aesthetic criteria. It should be appreciated that factors such as hand polishing vs. mechanical polishing; polishing a flat product as against a component of complex shape; thickness and composition of material can affect the visual appearance of the final surface.

    Finishes and Fabrication Description
    Some fabrication operations, such as grinding prior to painting or gluing, may require a rough surface finish but, generally speaking, a smooth, well finished sheet requires less physical effort than a coarse, rough one when it comes to blending.  Certain finishes are more difficult to recreate by hand than others, causing fabrication difficulties; this is especially true of the “special” finishes which cannot be easily replicated in a fabrications workshop.  For this reason the fine satin finish (such as OPTISHEEN®) is popular and practical for
    fabrication shops around the world. Types of Finish Stainless steel is available in a wide variety of standard and special finishes.
    The majority of finishes can be divided into three categories: mill finishes, mechanically polished finishes and special finishes.
    In each case the finishes are described under either their appropriate British Standard number (BS 1449 Part 2) or the name by which they are commonly known. In some instances a finish may commonly be known by several names, leading to some misunderstandings (see Finish Variations).  Satin Finish Variations Finishes described by a particular industry designation, i.e. No. 4 finish, may still vary from supplier to supplier and even from batch to batch from the same supplier.  In the case of mill finishes, this may be the result of differing manufacturing conditions.
    In the case of satin polished finishes, it is probably due to wear of the abrasive belts used in these processes.  One way to overcome these problems is to specify a proprietary brand name finish, such as OPTISHEEN®, which has a guaranteed consistency.
    Failing this, reference should be made to a supplied finish of at least 30 mm square to show up all the characteristics of the finish and against which the final product can be judged.  The customer should define and agree acceptable levels of variations from the standard to minimise the problems caused by belt wear and consequent changes in finish.
  • Polished Finish Stainless Steel
    Polished Finish Stainless Steel
    NO.4 surface finished description

    Also called brushed, directional or satin finish A number 4 finish, characterized by fine polishing grit lines that are uniform and directional in appearance. The final abrasive used in the process is 150 to 220 grit.
    Is characterized by short, parallel polishing lines, which extend uniformly along the length of the coil. It is obtained by mechanically polishing a No. 3 finish with gradually finer abrasives. Depending on the requirements of the application, the final finish can be anywhere between 120 and 320 grit. Higher grit numbers produce finer polishing lines and more reflective finishes. The surface roughness is typically Ra 25 micro-inches or less. This general-purpose finish is widely used for restaurant and kitchen equipment, storefronts and food processing and dairy equipment. If a fabricator needs to blend in welds or do other refinishing, the resulting polishing lines are usually longer than on product polished by a producer or toll-polishing house.
    Used for:Appliances, Architectural wall panels, Beverage equipment, Boat fittings, Bus shelters, Clean rooms, Column covers, Dairy equipment, Elevator doors and interiors, Escalator trim, Food processing equipment, Furniture
    Highway tank trailers, Hospital surfaces and equipment, Instrument or control panels, Kitchen equipment, Luggage handling equipment, Mass transit equipment, Restaurant equipment, Sinks, Sterilizers, Storefronts, Water fountains

    Reflections on Finish

    Surface finish is an important element in any specification or purchase order for stainless steel regardless of the intended end use.
    And, for those applications in which appearance is important, finish is a design element and must be specified.
    In architecture or other highly visible applications, the appearance of stainless steel is a critical design element and specification of the wrong finish can alter the desired effect. In consumer products, the gleam of well-polished stainless steel has strong sales appeal. In institutional kitchen, restaurant, and hospital applications, properly finished stainless helps to emphasize the feeling of cleanliness.
    I n addition to visual appeal of polished stainless, there are a number of functions served by properly prepared stainless surfaces. In sanitary applications, polished stainless steel not only looks clean, but also is easy to clean and keep clean.
    There are also economic considerations in specifying finish. For example, a cold rolled bright annealed finish might be specified instead of a more expensive No. 8 polished finish; or some proprietary rolled finishes might serve the same purpose as a No. 4 polished  nish. A knowledge of finishes can sometimes result in significant savings.
  • 2D Finish Stainless Steel
    2D Finish Stainless Steel
    2D surface finished description
    Cold rolled, heat treated, pickled.
    Similar to 2B in thicker sheet size ranges. Not as smooth as 2B
    A no. 1 Finish after being Cold Rolled, Annealed, Pickled and Passivated. This results in a uniform dull matt finish, superior to a No. 1 Finish.
    Suitable for industrial application, and eminently suitable for severe deep drawing as the dull surface, (which may be polished after fabrication) retains the lubricant during the drawing operation.
    This material is cold rolled followed by softening and de-scaling.  The effect of cold rolling the material is to produce a smoother, less pitted surface.  The surface is not only smooth but of matt grain appearance.  Used where a better surface is required or subsequent processing/ finishing is necessary.
    Typical uses include car exhaust systems, furnace parts, builders’ hardware and petrochemical equipment.

    Introduction of Surface Finished

    Although the appearance of the surface is important in getting the desired aesthetic effect on stainless steel components, it is important to remember that stainless steels rely on their surface properties to give them their corrosion resistance.
    Specifying an appropriate surface finish on a stainless steel component is almost as important as selecting the right grade for the service environment.
    As a general rule, to optimise corrosion resistance the smoothest, most crevice free surface possible should be specified.
  • Stainless Steel Surface Finishes
    Stainless Steel Surface Finishes
    NO3 surface finished description
    This is a ground unidirectional uniform finish obtained with 80 - 100 grit abrasive.

    It is a good intermediate or starting surface finish for use in such instances where the surface will require further polishing operations to a finer finish after subsequent fabrication or forming.

    Finishes and Design

    There are a wide range of decorative finishes available; therefore, it is important to pay close attention to the selection of the most appropriate finish for the application required.  For highly visible applications the appearance of stainless steel is a critical design element and a misunderstanding of the wrong finish can alter the desired effect.  In commercial and hygienic applications, such as restaurants and hospitals, properly finished stainless steel is easier to keep clean.  In consumer products, such as catering equipment, the lustre from a well polished sheet of stainless steel has strong sales appeal.

    In addition to the visual appearance of polished stainless steel there are a number of functional considerations. In sanitary applications correctly polished stainless steel not only looks good but it helps to reduce the risk of bacteria being retained by the material.

    In aggressive environments, such as in the nuclear or offshore industries, a correctly polished stainless steel surface has a better resistance to corrosion than a surface that is roughly or badly polished. A smooth surface is less susceptible to an accumulation of deposits and stainless, which often become focal points for localised corrosion.  All stainless steel finishes perform better when cleaned and maintained and details of correct cleaning procedures may be found in our publication, "The Cleaning and Maintenance of Stainless Steel".
  • Embossed Stainless Steel Sheet
    Embossed Stainless Steel Sheet
    Embossed surface finished description

    Stainless steel often receives a mechan­ically induced finish to achieve gloss and/or finish consistency. The finish can either be rolled or polished to achieve a dull or bright finish. The texture of the rolls can also con­trol finish texture. Hot rolling followed by annealing will produce a rough-textured, dull surface, which is designated No. 1.
    Cold rolling through unpolished rolls results in a dull finish, which is designated 2D. A bright, reflective finish, which is des­ignated 2B, is accomplished by cold rolling, annealing, and a final pass through pol­ished rolls. Further polishing, brushing, buffing, or grinding can produce even brighter fin­ishes and other textured effects.
    Recently, stainless steel producers have introduced several embossed (rolled) finish­es with roughened, uniform textures.
    Other types of mechanically induced finishes achieve textured effects. The most common is embossing, which gives the metal surface an "orange peel" look. The advantage to embossing is to reduce the visual effects of oil canning in the finished product. Embossing is used primarily on coated steel and aluminum. It is often done on-line, either at the end of the paint coat­ing line or at the beginning of the fabrica­tion process.

    Introduction

    Rolled finishes are created when a stainless steel coil is passed through a set of rolls. The finish on the rolls is transferred to the surface of the coil. They are directional and, if panels are not installed in the same rolling direction, a checkerboard appearance can result.
    To prevent this problem, the rolling direction should be marked on the back of the panel. Dirt and debris accumulation is greater when directional finishes are installed with a horizontal grain orientation.

    What is a Standard Finish?

    "Standard" finishes are produced on an on-going basis. They are generally available off the shelf or can be obtained with a short lead-time. They are the finishes that are used for most stainless steel applications. Standard finishes are categorized as either "Mill" or "Polished".
    "Mill" finishes are the least expensive finish option. There are both hot- and cold-rolled mill finishes, and, as this description implies, their appearance is produced at least in part by passing the stainless steel through special rolls or dies. The reflectivity of these finishes varies from dull to mirror-like. These finishes become less uniform in appearance with increasing product thickness or diameter.
    "Polished" finishes are produced by mechanically abrading the surface with a series of gradually finer abrasives or a special rolling procedure that simulates the appearance of mechanical abrasion. The smoothest polished finishes are buffed after mechanical polishing to produce a mirror-like appearance.
    "Special" Finishes include finishes that are generally used when aesthetic appearance is important and for specialized industrial applications. This category includes non-directional scratch patterns, swirls, ground circles, embossed and coined textures, and various coloring and coating methods.
  • Hairline Finish Stainless Steel
    Hairline Finish Stainless Steel
    HL surface finished description

    HL means Hair Line. Finished by continuous polishing streaks by using abrasive of suitable grain size.
    The products achieved by continuous grinding of No.2D surface with polishing abrasive belt with appropriate grain size. They have relatively long continuous grinding stripe (further divided into No.150~320), and are mainly used in building decoration and elevator decoration, etc.

    Description Stainless steel surface finished
    The specification of a surface finish for equipment that is fabricated from stainless steel is a source of many potential problems and misunderstandings between purchasers and manufacturers. The implications for costs and ‘like for like’ comparisons between tenders, and the need to establish that the equipment condition satisfies all functional requirements of the application, dictate that the surface finish specified should be clearly and appropriately defined in all contractual documents.

    Unqualified descriptions, such as 'crevice free' or 'polished 400 grit', may appear definitive, but all to often these lead to ambiguities, disagreements of interpretation, or an unfitness for purpose.

    No standards exist for the finish of fabricated stainless steel items. This may well be because it is complex and difficult to produce one that will unambiguously satisfy suppliers and customers.

    Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial processes that alter the surface of a manufactured item to achieve a certain property. Finishing processes may be employed to: improve appearance, adhesion or wettability, solderability, corrosion resistance, tarnish resistance, chemical resistance, wear resistance, hardness, modify electrical conductivity, remove burrs and other surface flaws, and control the surface friction. In limited cases some of these techniques can be used to restore original dimensions to salvage or repair an item.

    Surface finishing processes can be categorized by how they affect the workpiece:
    Removing or reshaping finishing
    Adding or altering finishing
    Mechanical processes may also be categorized together because of similarities the final surface finish.
With advanced science and technology, our company develops and manufactures various kinds of Stainless Steel Surface Finish. Both new and old customers at home and abroad are welcomed to visit our company!

Stainless steel is widely used in the chemical industry, food machinery, mechanical and electrical industry, environmental protection industry, household appliances industry, and home decorating, finishing industry, to give people to gorgeous and noble feeling. Designed to perfection, these are widely appreciated by the clients for durability, sturdy construction, corrosion resistance, excellent finish and brilliant luster. Stainless steel applications development prospects will be more and more widely, but the stainless steel application development largely determine its degree of development of surface treatment technology. This Stainless Steel Surface Finish is available in the market at leading prices. Backed by large infrastructure and dedicated team members, we manufacture superior quality Stainless Steel Surface Finish. It uses a pollution-free pickling and passivation paste and room temperature poisoned with inorganic additives cleaning fluid dip. This can achieve the purpose of the stainless steel qualities of the whitening process. Handle the basically looks like a matte color. This method is more suitable for large, complex products. These professionals also make maintain two-way communication with our patrons to understand their exact needs and requirements. All the activities of our sophisticated infrastructure are efficiently and dexterously carried out by these experts. We have been able to meet the voluminous and customized requirements of the clients due to the perfect blend of dedicated employees and modernized infrastructure.
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